OBJETIVOS DEL TRABAJO

Rudesindus          Entre  la postura apriorística de la ciencia histórica y los planteamientos especulativos de los esotéricos, es necesario un estudio de la Tradición Jacobea como origen del Camino de Santiago. El propósito del trabajo es el estudio de sus fuentes para ver si contiene indicios o criterios de verosimilitud, o es una falsedad arropada en el transcurso de la Historia.

          Aunque incluyendo ampliaciones y complemento grafico adicional, todo lo aquí publicado relativo a Tradición Jacobea y sus criterios de verosimilitud, fue editado en el número 7 de la revista Rudesindus de 2011.

          Junto a este objetivo prioritario de este blog iré incluyendo otros muchos temas complementarios, como breves relatos literarios, artículos musicales, diarios de peregrinación, personajes de la historia jacobea, conformando un mosaico temático que pueda ser del gusto del peregrino del Camino de Santiago.

          Y si este Blog resulta de tu agrado, te invito a regristarte y a que lo des a conocer entre tus contactos que puedan estar interesados.

 

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Ing4 TWO TRADITIONS IN ONE

Predicación Santiago          It is necessary to specify that in the legend of Santiago there are two well differentiated parts, one that speaks of a trip from Santiago to Spain and its preaching in Hispanic lands, and another that refers to the transfer of the remains of the Apostle to Galicia by some disciples, who would have brought him from Jerusalem, where he was martyred. Therefore, more than a single tradition, are two traditions in one, that it is necessary to distinguish.

          Codice_PergaminoThe first places Santiago in Spain, not necessarily or exclusively in Galicia, and is based on an oral tradition whose origin is in the beginnings of Christianity, reinforced later by documentary evidence that suggests the existence of a Tradition that is transmitted through the centuries. The second begins in the ninth century, and consists of two elements: a first consisting of the revelation of the tomb of the Apostle Santiago (Inventio), and a later one that relates how the transfer of the remains to his tomb (Translatio).

compostela127          Each of the two traditions has its own argument, and rather than dissociate them must be analyzed. But each of them reinforces the other, and really are two moments of the same Tradition, as anticipated Bede the Venerable in the seventh century, because in addition to talking about the evangelization of Santiago in Hispania, he associates it with a transfer: “The Sacred bones of this blessed Apostle, were transferred to Hispania, and in their extreme part, placed safely in front of the British Sea “. The British term does not refer here to the British Isles or to French Brittany, but to Britonia, the Breton diocese of the Spanish northwest whose headquarters was Santa Maria de bande-prov-ecl-galicia-visig_opt2Bretoña, today San Martin de Mondoñedo (Lugo). That is to say, the connection between the two traditions existed already before the texts that sought to explain the Inventio and the Traslatio appeared, and before the discovery of the apostolic remains. It is important to emphasize this, because a singular fact in the appearance of the elements of the Tradition is that they appear in reverse order, first the tomb is revealed, and later the stories that explain the transfer appear. It is a contradictory question that many have used as a criterion of falsity, but which on the contrary has a very rational justification. The tomb is first discovered because its location was a local fact of little or no diffusion that is lost in the memory of an incipient and punished Christianity. It will be after the discovery when the need arises to explain the transfer on the signs of a very diluted and deformed oral tradition.

          If James had died in Jerusalem, where was his body? In order to respond to this, a formal discovery was necessary, which according to the use of the time could only come convincingly through revelation. The first written reference to revelation are found in three ancient letters of Compostela from the 9th century (829, 844 and 854) in which it is only mentioned that the body of James was revealed in 813, being Teodomiro bishop of Iria Flavia , During the reign of Alfonso II the Casto, and that the discovery took place in the valley of Amaia, but nothing is said about the circumstances of the revelation.

Concordia antealtares          The story of the Inventio appears in the “Concordia de Antealtares” (1077), between Diego Peláez, bishop of Iria, and Fagildo, abbot of the Antealtares Monastery. The first focus of construction of the future construction of Compostela, will be a small basilica and a monastery with a community of monks who took care of the relics cult of the apostle Santiago, raised on the east side in front of the entrance door of the Roman tomb, For which he was given the name of Antealtares, and of which there are no vestiges since it was demolished for the uprising of the cathedral that would replace the basilica of Alfonso III raised in the opposite side of the edículo, that remained between both constructions. This demolition involved a litigation between basilica and monastery because the beginning of the cathedral that demanded to demolish monastic edification, with a struggle of interests that concluded with the signing of the document of agreement on the new location of the monastery, with guarantees and agreements by which the Monks renounce the Church in exchange for privileges in the new cathedral, which will centralize the custody of the apostolic sepulcher, whose remains are related to its origin. Its documentary value is questioned because it arises two and a half centuries after the discovery, but together with the above mentioned antecedent, it must be added that the agreement does not seek to fill a void that did not concern in the Feudal Compostela, but to resolve the conflict of interests and Lay the custody of the holy body. The supposed void was occupied by an oral tradition that ends up finding a written expression.

          Belief and even popular knowledge goes here before the Church, in the elaboration of a narrative explaining the preaching in Spain, the martyrdom in Jerusalem and the burial in Galicia.

          The oldest document is the Translatio Sancti Jacobo, collected in the Codex Calixtino and Historia Compostelana (12th century), and later adorned in La Leyenda fotobleyenda 1493.Aurea de Jacobo de la Vorágine (13th century). It is the anonymous compilation in the ninth century of texts related to the Apostle of the popular oral tradition of the place, originally vulgar and appropriate for its declamation and perhaps intonation with some musical accompaniment in popular public forums. Its content mixes the Tradition with the Seven Apostolic Men of the Betica who are the disciples of Santiago, three of whom remain guarding the tomb, and the other four dispersed to preach. It includes local terms such as Iria and Sacred Peak, and popular myths such as the dragon, brave bulls and the sinking of the bridge.

The second document that explains the appearance of the body of the apostle in Spain is the Epistle of St. Leo. There are three versions of it, in which a more careful narrative is formed in the background and the forms in evolution from the popular to the cultured. The first, written between the end of the 9th centuyy and the beginning of the 10th century, is the version of the abbey of San Marcial de Limoges, supposedly attributed to Saint Leo I, pope between 440-461, known in Galicia in relation to Priscillianism; Is faithful to the Translatio but better tracing the outlines of the tradition, and still mixing it with that of the Seven Apostolic Men of the Betic, citing three remaining tombs, Torcuato, Tesifonte and Anastasio, (the first two homonyms to the list Of the Seven Men of the Betic), and four others returning to Jerusalem. His Latin is quite deficient, which translates his inspiration into the most popular Traslatio. The 2nd, from the end of the tenth century, is preserved in the Escorial, and is a more careful version, attributed to Pope Leo III (795-816); Eliminates the miraculous facts too portentous and only quotes to Anastasio like common name to the previous one, not pertaining to list of the Seven Men. The third is a scholarly writing from the end of the eleventh century or beginning of the twelfth century, attributed also to Leo III, is the form that is recorded in book III of the Codex Calixtino, which recognizes only two disciples other than the Seven Apostolic Men: Athanasius and Teodoro.

Already with the phenomenon of pilgrimage in boom, starting from the conviction in the value of the compostelan discovery, and to give credit and orthodoxy to the new that the discovery had confirmed, The Tradition needs arguments that support it and allow a solid and congruent diffusion. It can be said that it seeks to promote Compostela with principles equivalent to the current advertising. It is what the Letter of St. Leo seeks, explaining how the body of James the Greater, who was said to be the evangelizer of Hispania, after his martyrdom in Jerusalem narrated in the Acts of the Apostles, was able to reach the coast of Iria Flavia and be buried in the future Compostela. Its basic purpose, common to all versions, is the certification of the primacy of the Church as ecclesiastical endorsement. The different versions are successive adaptations of the Translatio to convert the popular oral tradition into a written, erudite and cultured tradition, demystifying the transfer and dissociating it from the Tradition of the Seven Apostolic Men.

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29- Don Denís el rey trovador

dinis-p          Dionisio I (1261 – 1325) sexto rey de Portugal, era el hijo mayor del rey Alfonso III el Boloñés y de su segunda esposa, Beatriz de Castilla, por lo que era nieto de Alfonso X. Sucedió a su padre en el trono en 1279, reconociéndose desde entonces como «Dom Denis, pella graça de firmaDeus, Rei de Purtugal e do Algarue».

isabel_dinis_de_portugal         Se casó con Isabel, hija de Pedro III de Aragón, llamada la Reina Santa, que peregrinó a Compostela. Junto a ella trabajó para mejorar la vida de los más desfavorecidos, protegiendo a las clases bajas de los abusos y la extorsión con decisiones legislativas, y fundando diversas instituciones sociales.

la-cruz-de-la-orden-de-cristo-simbolo-que-adorno-entre-otras-cosas-las-naves-portuguesas-durante-los-descubrimientos          En su ascenso al trono, Portugal tenía conflictos diplomáticos con la Iglesia católica, y Dionisio firmó un acuerdo con el papa Nicolás III, jurando proteger los intereses de la iglesia en Portugal garantizando el asilo de los caballeros templarios perseguidos en Francia y creando la Orden de Cristo, designada a ser la continuación de la Orden del Temple, y cuya cruz será distintivo en los navíos portugueses.

tratado_de_alcanizes          Libre el territorio luso de ocupación musulmana, Dionisio se convirtió en un rey más administrativo que militar. Mantuvo, no obstante una breve contienda con Castilla que resolvió pronto mediante la firma del tratado de Alcañices. Desde entonces sus prioridades fueron administrativas y legislativas, en beneficio y protección de los débiles, arreglando las situaciones injustas mediante el núcleo de la legislación civil y criminal portuguesa, desarrollando la infraestructura minera y naval, y sobretodo las infraestructuras rurales, redistribuyendo tierras, promocionando la agricultura por lo que fue conocido con el apodo de El Labrador.

el-rei_d-_dinis_administrando_justica_1899_-_veloso_salgado        Una de sus máximas preocupaciones y logros fue el de la cultura. Su labor fue muy importante en la consolidación literaria del portugués. Su corte fue centro donde se cultivó la poesía trovadoresca, y por ella pasaron numerosos trovadores y juglares, siendo él mismo un prestigioso trovador, por lo que también fue conocido como el rey trovador, cultivando todos los géneros, y dejando una gran cantidad de obras de las que los cancioneros recopilan un total de 138, distribuidas en todos los tipos: 73 cantigas de amor, 51 cantigas de amigo y 10 cantigas de escarnio y maldecir, 3 pastorelas y 1 alba. Siete de sus cantigas nos han llegado con su música 1024px-pergamino_sharreroriginal descubiertas por el profesor Harvey L. Sharrer en el Archivo Nacional de la Torre do Tombo, en un pergamino que servía de cubierta a un libro de registros notariales del siglo XVI, y al que se le dio el nombre de Pergamino Sharrer, un caso similar al de las cantigas de Martín Codax. En su época, Lisboa fue uno de los centros europeos de la cultura y el conocimiento. Fundó la university-of-coimbraUniversidad de Coimbra y mandó traducir las obras más importantes del saber de su tiempo, en modo que su corte fue uno de los mayores centros literarios de la Península Ibérica y de Europa.

d-_dinis_-_compendio_de_cronicas_de_reyes_biblioteca_nacional_de_espana          Falleció en Santarén en 1325 y sepultado en el Monasterio de San Dionisio en Odivelas.

          Escucharemos una de sus cantigas más populares y queridas de la voz de la cantora gallega Helena de Alfonso

 

DINÍS, Don [B 568 / V 171]

-Ai flores, ai flores do verde pino,
se sabedes novas do meu amigo!
Ai Deus, e u é?

Ai, flores, ai flores do verde ramo,
se sabedes novas do meu amado!
Ai Deus, e u é?

Se sabedes novas do meu amigo,
aquel que mentiu do que pos comigo!
Ai Deus, e u é?

Se sabedes novas do meu amado
aquel que mentiu do que mi ha jurado!
Ai Deus, e u é?

-Vós me preguntades polo voss’amigo,
e eu ben vos digo que é san’e vivo.
Ai Deus, e u é?

Vós me preguntades polo voss’amado,
e eu ben vos digo que é viv’e sano.
Ai Deus, e u é?

E eu ben vos digo que é san’e vivo
e seerá vosc’ant’o prazo saído.
Ai Deus, e u é?

E eu ben vos digo que é viv’e sano
e seerá vosc’ant’o prazo passado.
Ai Deus, e u é?

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Ing3 SANTIAGO ZEBEDEO: BETWEEN HISTORY AND LEGEND

           This analysis must begin in the figure of the Apostle Santiago, figure that is between the History and the Legend.

santiago          Historically it is well identifiable as James the Higher, brother of John the Evangelist, son of Zebedee and Salome, settled in Bethsaida, on the shores of the so-called Sea of Galilee, where his family had an deal dedicated to fishing and therefore had a certain social rank. The brothers Santiago and Juan had to have an education, which, if it was not of the elite of the rabbinic schools, if it was a formation superior to the average of Jewish life, with frequent contact with Greek culture and its language, Very widespread then on the shores of the Sea of Galilee, and of course I was familiar with Latin, the language of the dominant Rome, with whom I would probably do some commercial trading in fisheries. In keeping with this, John, brother of James and a beloved disciple of the Lord, was known to the High Priest (Jn 1816) and was commissioned by his crucified master to care for his Mother (Jn 1927).

Imagen4          The discovery of a first-century boat exposed in the Kibbutz Ginosar (Galilee) museum, where some even want to see the boat of the fishermen apostles in which Jesus Christ also sailed and acted, at least tells us much about what the Life of the first apostles and in what environment the call of the first elect took place.

Dibujo terminado corregido sepia

          The call of Christ to the apostles is counted in summary form in the scriptures, but between Christ and Santiago there was a personal relationship that is deduced from the own scriptures. There was family relationship as cousins on the part of mother. Several evangelical passages accredit the relationship and treatment between the Virgin Mary and Salome, respective mothers of Jesus and Santiago. John in his Gospel account (Jn 1926-27), in relation to Christ crucified, quotes Mary and Salome as the mother and sister of the mother, who reveals a very close kinship among them, possibly carnal sisters. Salome was one of the women of the group of disciples closest to Christ, who knew the special charisma of Jesus, manifested from his adolescence, known from the loss of Jesus in his adolescence and his discovery among the doctors (Lc 246-50).

          Among them was the closeness of their native cities (between Bethlehem and Yafia were about three kilometers) and their places of residence, and there were also family relations, perhaps interrupted by their respective professional duties: Jesus towards carpentry in Nazareth (Is identified as “the carpenter” in the scriptures, Mc 63) and Santiago towards fishing in Bethsaida.

 Bautismo de Jesús         A relevant link between Jesus and the early apostles was John the Baptist, also related to Jesus through the maternal way, who reveals to John and Andrew that Jesus was the expected Messiah, which informed James, Peter, and other friends Of Bethsaida, which is where the first nucleus of disciples and apostles of Jesus arises, all according to the same apostle and evangelist John, as a direct protagonist of the facts (Jn 135-51).

          The coexistence between Christ and the brothers Zebedee can be seen at the wedding of Cana in Galilee, of which John relates in his Gospel (Jn 21-12) that Jesus and Mary attended with relatives and disciples, which reveals that John and his family attended and witnessed the special event that John will be the only evangelist to report.

Dibujo 3 terminado sepia

 

          They are different passages that tell us that what the Scriptures count as an instant, is the result of a process of mutual knowledge. Christ does not propose to make fishers of men to the first that finds, but to those who share a reciprocal knowledge.

          It is understood that James, together with Peter and his brother John, is one of the three favorite apostles of Christ, as revealed by his presence at key moments of the New Testament, such as the Transfiguration of Christ on Mount Tabor, the resurrection of the daughter of Jairus, and the Prayer in the Orchard of Gethsemane. He receives from his Master a specific name, Boanerges or son of thunder, which some relate to his temperament, but which I intuit was related to the reaction of paternal anger, because that nickname gives it to the two Zebedee brothers, who abruptly abandoned his father with the task of the nets, something that Peter and Andrew, workers of the estate of Zebedee, also did, so Zebedee quite possibly had an understandable reaction of anger for lose his more faithful and close personnel, including his His own wife Salome, who was also an assiduous follower of Christ and often accompanied him in the group of close disciples.

Dibujo 2 terminado sepia

          It is well known the maternal request (Mt 2020-28) in which Salome asks Christ to grant a preferential place to his children, thinking that the kingdom of which he spoke was an earthly kingdom. The moment is taken by the Master to win the commitment of the brothers Zebedee, at the same time to teach everyone: “Whoever wants to be great among you, must be your servant, and whoever wants to be first among you, must be slave of everybody”(Mt 2026-27), in tune with the maxim of one of his parables over the kingdom of heaven, that of the workers of the vineyard: the lasts will be the firsts (Mt 201-16), or as in the last supper when during a discussion among the apostles about who should be considered the most important (Luke 2224) Jesus told them that whoever wants to be the most important of everybody, should be the servant of others as he had just done by washing their feet (Jn 134-14).

          It is important to remember in this analysis that they describe well the human and historical dimension of the Apostle James and his close proximity to his Master, which allows us to understand other later aspects.

          But in Santiago there are legendary elements that detract from the historical dimension of the character, and that interests to know to value what may be behind them. 

Apresamiento y JuicioPredicación Santiago

         

After the Resurrection and Ascension of Christ some sources locate to Santiago preaching in Spain, and in his return to Jerusalem is captured and condemned to death by Herodes Agripa.

          Here is a synthesis of the Jacobean Legend. After the death of Santiago, his disciples take the body, take him to the port of Joppe, where they embark and transfer him by sea to Iria Flavia of Roman Galicia, in 7 days and 7 disciples tell some traditions, are presented to the called Queen Lupa who in turn leads them before the Roman legacy of Dugio, who imprisoned them as fugitives from Rome; are freed by an angel, flee and are protected from their pursuers by the sinking of a bridge; overcome a dragon and tame brave bulls with the strength of the sign of the cross, bulls that will lead the holy body meekly to their place of burial; this generates the conversion of Lupa, that makes donation of place for the burial of the body of the Apostle.

Traslación

 

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Ing2- ORIGIN OF THE WAY OF SANTIAGO

          So, what is the origin of the mythical Way of Santiago ?.

          History is the one who gives us the first answer: its origin is the discovery of the Sepulcher Jacobeo in the high Middle Ages, in lands of Galicia. From here we can doubt the identity of remains that are venerated there, but this finding is the only credible generator of the Camino de Santiago.

          Some theorize a much earlier origin, the result of supposed pre-Christian pagan antecedents in the Galician coasts. The existence of pre-Christian pagan cults is undeniable, it can almost be said that it is obvious, because the existence of religious cults are consubstantial to man and therefore pre-Christ, but what can not be given for certainty is that a chronologically anterior cult is antecedent of another later.

          The syncretism between pagan cults and Christianity, a phenomenon of all cultures and epochs of history, is undeniable. Any culture that imposes itself on another absorbs elements of the former, and the phenomenon is not an annihilating imposition, as is sometimes blamed on christianity, but is a spontaneous process resulting from a concomitance of cults and ingrained customs that popular desire mixes and merges as a single one so that one submits to the other, but underlies within it, sometimes in a very recognizable way

          But this is not the case of the Camino de Santiago, which is not a product of cultural syncretism, but its beginning is well established as a socio-cultural phenomenon of identity well contrasted by various authors. And it is not a matter of denying the existence of precedents, but of establishing an origin and, therefore, of specifying whether an archaic fact is the cause of a later event or is only chronologically anterior. Many things have existed before in the long journey of space and time of the Way of Santiago, but it is well identifiable when a phenomenon is a cultural subsidiary of a previous one, or when it is established as a peculiar event with its own idiosyncrasy. If we look for relations of everything with everything, then everything begins in the Paleolithic, where the first human migrations arise, perhaps even before, with the migrations of the first hominids. But if we analyze with a minimum of property, we can only accept the existence of the Way of Santiago with the medieval emergence of the city of Compostela around the discovery of the Jacobean sepulcher in the first third of the ninth century. The Camino de Santiago emerges and is oriented towards a place, towards a character and towards a meaning, not towards something that was once a thing and from one moment becomes another.

          The analysis of the hypotheses that propose pagan antecedents like origin of the Way of Santiago has little foundation (zero in my opinion) and often they settle in esoteric approaches and pseudoscientific sensationalism, sometimes with added editorial interests and nationalistic wants, endeavored to recreate the Own and exclusive roots of a people, the more distant in time and more influential in current aspects, the better. The aforementioned Celtic cults of these theories are but local cults with reach in a certain geographic surroundings, but they are not peregrinating cults; Much less across the European continent by paths then nonexistent.

          Without denying the syncretism of other cases, the Camino de Santiago is not the Christianization of preexisting pagan cults in an impossible jump of many centuries. And the supposed ancestral road to the Finisterre, if it ever existed, is not a reconverted antecedent of the Way of Santiago, but the prolongation of the pilgrimage to the Finisterra is a consequence of the pilgrimage to Compostela, including the burning of clothes, a rite already Was made in the sixteenth century (with indications Cruz dos farraposof coming from much earlier), on the roofs of the cathedral, on the so-called cross two rags, with a stone incinerator where the rite of completion of the pilgrimage was made burning the old clothes as Physical and spiritual renewal. It was not a pagan rite but a Christian rite, documented from the sixteenth century onwards, but it was a very ancient rite, in which the cathedral chapter provided new clothes for the pilgrims. When this rite disappears, it flourishes modernly in Finisterre as a romantic and attractive gesture in which it was wanted to see what never was, since the burning in the Finisterre of today is a recent phenomenon that lacks of the antiquity and the precursor value and pagan that some want to give him. It is even a hoax that can be seen in current broadcast programs and guides for unwary tourists. For example, a guide published in Munich in 2010 entices its readers with these words: “Among the pilgrims, until today has been the tradition, described in medieval stories, of burning near the lighthouse the clothes – or part of it – that Have led during the Camino. If the ritual is performed in the right order – bath in the sea, burning clothes, watching the sunset – this promises that the next morning we will wake up being new people.

          But let us return to the question of the origin of the Way which, after these evaluations, can then be rephrased in these terms: Whose remains are they venerated in Compostela? Is it probable that they are those of the Apostle James?

Carlomagno sueño

The discovery of the Jacobean burial occurs in the first third of the ninth century. But not in the year 813 that is mentioned in the first sources and that still today is mentioned as a figure that is part of the legend itself, looking without doubt the prestige of the emblematic figure of Charlemagne who supposedly had a dream in which the apostle Santiago reveals that at the end of the Milky Way, in Galicia lands, his tomb is found. Charlemagne died on January 28, 814, and therefore 813 is a historical impossibility, for at that time the Bishop Teodomiro, who was the protagonist of the discovery, was still not governed in the diocese of Iria, but his predecessor Quendulfo II, who still holds the position September 1, 818, the date on which Tumbo A of the monastery of Sobrado keeps the last document with the signature of this bishop, as a clear indication that he must have died not long after. Teodomiro could not reach the bishopric of Iria before 819, which is the year proposed as the beginning of his bishopric, and therefore the discovery of what will be the compostela tomb can not be earlier than that date.

          El obispo Teodomiro descubre el sepulcro jacobeoThe sepulchral discovery had to take place between the years 820 and 830, probably in 829, date of the first local writing that cites that the discovery was in the days of Teodomiro, bishop of Iria, and under the reign of Alfonso II the Casto, although the writings They do not make a description of the circumstances of the relics’ finding. The news generated great impact throughout Europe and from this date emerges the embryo of what will be the city of Compostela and immediately begins the arrival of pilgrims and therefore the phenomenon of pilgrimage through a path that fluctuates with the progress of The Reconquest for the upper third of the Iberian peninsula. But shortly afterwards the Camino becomes an objective reality in which the route of the French Way, on which bridges, monasteries and hospitals are created to help the pilgrim, is fixed and protected by royal edicts that seek to repopulate, colonize and develop the lands crossed by the Jacobean route.

          Imagen3Imagen2The papal bestowal of the Jubilee reinforces it as a Christian cultural expression of Europe. It is attributed to Goethe to say that Europe was born from pilgrimage to Compostela and that Christianity is its mother tongue, which independently of the authorship of this proposal, explains well that the Pope Juan Pablo II said to Europe in 1982 from Compostela: “It finds again . Be yourself. Discover your origins. Aviva your roots … “. Well, the Jacobean Tradition is one of these roots, perhaps the most important and influential in Europe, and deserves an analysis of its content.

 

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6- Estatuilla relicario de Santiago peregrino, exvoto funerario.

sin-titulo          Una imagen jacobea de singular valor e interés es la estatuilla de Santiago Peregrino del siglo XIV. Su valor está en ser una obra realizada en plata dorada, obra maestra de la orfebrería gótica francesa de 1320, perteneciente a la escuela parisiense. Por su valor se guarda como parte del Tesoro de la Catedral, en la Capilla de las Reliquias. Y su interés emana de tratarse de una pieza relicario que guardaba un diente del Apóstol que desapareció en 1921, con ocasión del incendio en dicha Capilla. Además hay un interés adicional que caben deducirse de las interpretaciones de la historia de esta representación del hijo de Zebedeo.

          La apreciada pieza fue donada por el tesorero de Felipe IV el Hermoso (rey de Francia entre 1285 y 1314), Geoffroy Coquatrix, que peregrinó u ordenó peregrinar a un representante al sepulcro del Apóstol en 1321 y a su llegada a Compostela hizo donación de esta reputada creación que se conserva y expone en la Capilla de las Reliquias, de la que sale en algunas procesiones mitradas.

sin-titulo-copia-2          La imagen se conoce coloquialmente como el Coquatrix. En ella el Apóstol Santiago sostiene un relicario en su mano izquierda, al que hace alusión el cartel de la mano derecha, que reza:

lN HOC VASI AURI QUOD TENET ISTE IMACO EST DENS B[EAT]I  IACOBI AP[OSTO]LI QUE GAUFRIDUS  CONQUATRIZ PAR[ISIENSIS] DEDIT. HUIC ECCLESIA. ORATE PRO EO

“En este vaso de oro que sostiene esta imagen, está un diente del Bienaventurado Jacobo Apóstol, la cual regaló a esta iglesia el ciudadano parisiense Gaufredus Coquatrix. Rogad por él”.

          La imagen ha sido mostrada en distintas exposiciones europeas por el innegable aprecio y prestigio entre los especialistas, a pesar de haber sufrido algunos accidentes, como la pérdida de la bolsa, el forzado de la torreta relicario, y cierta torsión en el ala del sombrero. La delicadeza de los trazos, la elegancia del relicario, el refinamiento del pedestal, enriquecido con seis pequeños leones y el uso de esmalte rojo y azul que resalta las armas del donante, así como las conchas del sombrero, justifican su estima entre los expertos.

sin-titulo-copia-copia          A pesar de su sobrio vestuario de peregrino la figura se hace inolvidable y plena de especial atractivo por la fuerza en el diseño del rostro con aspiración de retrato, el sentido de las proporciones, el dominio del volumen, la gracia que emana del porte, la sencillez del plegado y la naturalidad de la actitud  que añaden atractivo a tan singular imagen.

estatuilla          Hay en la historia de esta estatuilla-relicario una curiosa paradoja. Nada se dice, por un lado, de la rareza de la reliquia ofrecida. La sobriedad del ropaje contrasta con la fortuna de uno de las mayores fortunas del reino.  Geoffroy Coquatrix era uno de los potenciales bienhechores del hospital de la cofradía parisina de Santiago, fundado en el año 1319  por esta cofradía que reclutaba a sus responsables entre la alta burguesía. ¿Por qué privar al Hospital Saint-Jacques de París de una reliquia que habría atraído el reconocimiento y la gratitud de los cofrades? ¿Por qué optó por reclamar los sufragios del Apóstol, así como la oración de los peregrinos en su santuario de Galicia, como lo da a entender la inscripción CIVIS PAR[isiensis]?. ¿Habría aprovechado el peregrinaje efectuado en 1321 por Charles de Valois, hermano de Felipe el Hermoso, al que no estaba particularmente vinculado, para confiarle esta preciosa ofrenda?. La respuesta a estos interrogantes puede estar en el hecho de que el donante era maestro de la Cámara de las Cuentas cuando falleció en el año 1321, por lo que pudiera muy bien tratarse de un último impulso ante la inminencia de la muerte. El envío de este exvoto postula la realización de un peregrinaje por poderes, incluso si éste se llevó a cabo post mortem, en nombre del difunto, como lo demuestra el ropaje que lleva Santiago.

Publicado en 6- Estatuilla relicario de Santiago peregrino, exvoto funerario. | Deja un comentario

I1- INITIAL APPROACH

IMG          When you arrive in Santiago de Compostela with the spirit and body of a pilgrim, you visit the tomb of the Apostle and embrace the back of his figure in the dressing room on the main altar, after entering the cathedral by his Holy Door in that magical atmosphere which floats like a haze between the square of La Quintana and that of Obradoiro, between that of Platerías and that of Azabacherías, does not leave one to wonder if indeed the remains of the Apostle Santiago el Mayor will be preserved there with traditional veneration through the ages.

          If one heeds the legend as briefly is told in the pamphlets and tourist guides, esoteric books, literary essays, novels rediscovering hidden truths, or radio or television programs that meet at night Best scenario, all elements directed to the consumerist and curious mentality of the fleeting visitor, or of the listener not translatiodemanding and avid of flashy novelties, the doubt is more than inevitable: the legend tells us that the body of Santiago arrived in Galicia in one Stone boat that floated on the waters, where the holy body rested, crossing, through supernatural forces, the Mediterranean and Atlantic waters that separated Palestine from Galicia.

          From the most elementary logic, the approach is an impossibility that renders the Jacobean legend in its entirety unfeasible, reduced to a pious tradition lacking any historical foundation, or to an unscientific account that does not deserve investigation or is worthy of study, or to the trajectory of A myth that obeys political, military, ecclesiastical, cultural or doctrinal interests. The evangelizing options of James the Greater in Hispania and the location of his sepulcher in Galicia are relegated to merely ecclesiastical initiatives that intentionally hide a pagan precedent. In this way, tendencies are found that are easily diffused in a permissive and uncritical environment towards initiatory and esoteric approaches, avidly for sensationalist novelties supposedly hidden throughout history by tendentious doctrinal interests, in a land well subsumed by the anthropological reinterpretations of the New It was, with the anti-clerical tendencies of a society increasingly dominated by the culture of science and well-being, generating a totum revolutum where it is difficult to defend the legitimate options of the old Jacobean Tradition.

fachada-del-obradoiro-catedral-de-santiago-de-compostela          But then, that colossal cathedral that impresses to see from the Plaza del Obradoiro, that admirable Portico of Glory, that prodigious phenomenon of pilgrimage for centuries, that millenary cult to the Apostle Santiago, is only the fruit of a tradition supported in a legend that Perhaps it could be inspired by good faith, naivety, equivocation, opportunism, convenience, imagination, fantasy, fanaticism or lies ?. The contradiction is so great that it is necessary to approach the Tradition with an unprejudiced and multidisciplinary purpose to see if it contains indications or criteria of verisimilitude, or if on the contrary it is a well-worn falsehood in the course of History.

          This is the purpose of this work, to analyze with rigor the possible plausibility criteria of the Jacobean Tradition, which will not be easy because of the chronological amplitude and the epistemological arc that it encompasses, besides that this analysis is going against the current in times that See the Camino de Santiago more as an attractive scenario of experiences than as an ideological result of an unprecedented sociocultural phenomenon of its own origin: the medieval discovery of the tomb of the Apostle Santiago. Today this is of little interest, and there are hypotheses that invent preexisting origins and disrupt the historical principles of the Jacobean pilgrimage by inventing other so-called roots that detract from the original root of the Camino de Santiago. That is why defending the Jacobean tradition today is also a way of defending the origin of the Way of Saint James, because the Way is a route of pilgrimage and is cultural and ideological content of the cause that originates, both aspects, channel and content , Which deserve to be taken care of, since they define their geographical, historical and cultural identity.

unamuno          A quotation which reflects the way in which we tend to value the Jacobean Tradition today was expressed by Don Miguel de Unamuno (1864-1936) in the newspaper article on Santiago de Compostela that he wrote in Salamanca in 1912, collected in a selection of articles That make up a landscape and poetic vision of Spain with unquestionable literary quality: “Andanzas and Spanish visions”. Don Miguel considers the fruit of the naive faith to believe that there is the body of the Apostle Santiago, he sees Compostela as a result of the millennial pilgrimage that influenced much in the cultural and political conformation of Europe and Spain, he knows about the possibility of Priscillian, Supposed heir and reformer of the Celtic legate, who is actually buried there and affirms that “a modern man, with a critical spirit, can not admit, however Catholic, that the body of Santiago el Mayor is in Compostela. What body, then, is the one venerated there and how and why did the cult begin?. This is today a widespread view of the Jacobean Tradition, to reduce it to an ancient pious tradition without foundation, to open ears to supposed Celtic legacies, to sow doubts about the true occupation of the compostela tomb, and to indulge in Priscillian what is denied to Santiago. It is not right to open a question, and without an approach to the study of its content, opting for an option and closing doors to another. The Jacobean Tradition is not the blind fruit of a faith, but an old cultural legacy whose origin is not ecclesiastical but popular, nor is it a doctrinal principle that defines the degree of catholicity of a Catholic. The bells of criticism of the Tradition which had been heard by the admired and admirable Don Miguel had just been echoed by a man from the Catholic Church, Monsignor Louis Duchesne, as a clear expression that whether or not to admit the Jacobean Tradition was never a doctrinal requirement Of the Catholic faith, within which we will see the emergence of the most tenacious Jacobite detractors.

Claudio Sánchez AlbornozAlbornoz          Another quotation that defines the position of historical science in the face of the Jacobean Tradition is dealt with by Don Claudio Sánchez Albornoz (1893-1984), stating that “it is unlikely that during the years immediately following the death of Our Lord Jesus Christ, extremely difficult years for His Disciples; One of the most authoritative apostles to abandon the primitive jerosimilitano nucleus and to think nothing less than crossing the Mediterranean and moving to the extreme lands of the world: Hispania”. We will see that there are solid arguments to propose the contrary that Don Claudio suggests and it could be said that History tends to adopt an aprioristic position when it elevates to sentence what is but a difficult opinion both to demonstrate and to refute. If Medieval History is full of gaps, Old History is even more so, and it does not seem right to make statements with personal opinions or subjective or abstract evaluations, but rather to consider all the data and indications that come together in the case of Santiago. Even Don Claudio himself says: “… nothing guarantees the authenticity of the magical Translatio of the apostolic corpse to Galicia, but nothing obliges to deny it, because in history many events have occurred, not less illogical and implausible than that …”. So that Don Claudio seems not to be defined at all, and he opens a slit that History does not have definitive criteria to close and that invites us to leave open the possibilities of Tradition, that deserve an evaluation unprejudiced and multidisciplinary. This is not the usual position of historical science, whose usual options range from omitting it, to considering it a Christianization of a pagan antecedent, to rejecting it as an unjustified product of a fervent desire, and even to judge antiscientific simply to deal with the subject.

          Another different position, but also leading to the disrepute of the Tradition, are the esoteric, initiatory or rediscovering theories of the Jacobean pilgrimage as usurpers of a supposedly previous or different reality, where the legend of the Apostle James is nothing more than the excuse to hide and lead to a historical, ideological or virtual scenario, completely different and alien to the Jacobean. For some the Jacobean conceals a pre-Christian pagan antecedent, where the Celtic precedent is proposed as true historical root of the question. For others the true truth lies in legendary and mysterious realms, where the tomb of the Apostle is often considered a very secondary or even fictitious subject, as a cover for a process of moral initiation to arrive at truths only suitable for the elect. Others say that Santiago is only a myth in Templarios llegando a San Juan De La Peñathe shadow of which symbols and signs are hidden that must be interpreted, and whose message links with the Game of the Goose, the ritual and secret world of the Templars, the enigmas of the builders and stonecutters , The mystery of the Grail, and a true end of the Way which, of course, is not Compostela, but the Finisterre Sea, where formerly a supposed ancestral road ended worshiping the afterlife with rites usurped by the Christian religion. To many others, in short, the whole of the Jacobean world is nothing more than a farce or historical montage for the benefit of military and ecclesiastical interests, where the only thing they find interesting is the fabulous cultural and artistic production that has been Along the Camino de Santiago, omitting all the generatrix value to the only engine that generated this phenomenon without precedent: the Jacobean Tradition.

          Between these two marked tendencies, erudite and scientific one, esoteric and parapsychological, the other, there is a very narrow margin of credibility to the old Tradition that limits the possible analysis of the same and the attention that both worlds can lend. On the one hand the world of intellectual thought of historical science does not give any facility to the legitimate options of Tradition, which only leave the resource of faith, considering it an unreal proposal. On the other hand the speculative and enigmatic tendencies dazzle an audience eager for novelties, receptive to the most speculative, attractive and innovative proposals, closed to what they understand as conventional, especially if it has ecclesiastical ties. In fact, the most interesting and valuable works of the Jacobean Tradition sleep on the shelves from the general oblivion of the academic world and the esoteric sphere, to even continue to remain in the re-editions of the books of history, Jacobian hypotheses that have been proven wrong, and Books and novels and radio and television programs that magnify the most unrealistic illusions and omit any indication or criterion reasonably favorable to the Tradition are still being published and published.

          Between these two generic options so pronounced, the Way of Saint James becomes the stage where today’s pilgrim is uncomfortable talking about faith or religious motivation or apostolic roots, and for many walkers the Tradition is unknown or its value is secondary or null. What we are looking for today is a renewal experience, a disconnection with everyday life, a contact with nature, a framework that makes us the protagonist of our steps, a personal experience where what matters least is the historical background, the engine of everything The fabulous process that is the Way of Saint James: the Jacobean Tradition. “What matters is the experience of the road”, beautiful phrase of ambiguous reading that turns the Way into a good in itself. “The door opens to all” is the message of a well-known medieval poem that should not be understood as “everything serves”, but as “we all have access”. Today, that the Way is open to many interests, all motives are respectable, but not forgetting IMG_0001that the Way to Compostela is the cultural expression of the Christian identity of Europe, the root of which is the Jacobean Tradition. The consequence is that, from many aspects, the Way of Santiago is more the focus of tourists and curious than of pilgrims, and even source of exploitation of companies and tour operators that turn the Jacobean route into market or theme park. The deterioration of the Camino is being so serious that the Galician Association of Friends of the Camino de Santiago ???????????????????????????????(AGACS) in a press conference convened in Santiago on 18-12-2010 and denouncing the situation and with the adhesion of a multitude of Jacobean associations , Requested UNESCO to include the Camino de Santiago on the List of World Heritage in Danger, as it happens with some monuments in the third world.

          Faced with the secularization and exploitation of the Camino de Santiago, and facing the narrow margin of credibility that remains between scholars and speculators, I propose to study the Jacobean Tradition as genuine content of the Way, which gives it its most authentic meaning, to see what are its Criteria of historical verisimilitude and its values in the 21st century.

          After this initial approach and although each section of this blog can be consulted independently, for those who prefer a more methodical presentation I propose the following order in the vision of the themes that this work proposes and that will be progressively edited:

1.- Initial approach.

2.- Origin of the Way of Santiago.

3.- Between the History and the Legend.

4.- Two traditions in one.

5.- Criteria of Global Likelihood.

6.- Likelihood criteria in the Scriptures.

7.- Verisimilitude of the Hispanic destination.

8.- Criteria that justify “forgetting”.

9.- The Discovery of the Sepulcher.

10.- The contribution of archeology.

11.- Evolution of the tomb and beginning of the local worship.

12.- Criteria for Integrity and continuity of the temple and the remains preserved in it.

13.- Theories anti-jacobeas.

14.- The C14 test.

15.- Final conclusion.

Publicado en I1- INITIAL APPROACH, L- TRANSLATION TO ENGLISH AND ITALIAN | Deja un comentario

28- El Códice Calixtino y la ficción histórica

el-codice-del-peregrino-9788408108986          El insólito y extravagante hurto contemporáneo del Códice Calixtino, ha venido a conceder al Liber Sancti Iacobi una popularidad extraordinaria y una activación del interés por esta obra única, que merece la consideración de joya bibliográfica por derecho propio al tratarse de la más sensacional y mediática reliquia literaria medieval. El acontecimiento ha dado pie a alguna recreación novelesca al más puro estilo especulativo del “El código da Vinci” en fabuladora inventiva, en donde, conforme a la moda especuladora de la novela-ficción con pretensiones a veces de pasar por novela histórica, la propia iglesia esconde intereses inconfesables.   

 

Entrega del codice al arzobispo de Santiago. EFELa fama y el prestigio generados por el AFP PHOTO / MIGUEL RIOPAinusitado incidente llegó a alcanzar tales proporciones que, tras su recuperación, la Catedral de Santiago organizó una magna exposición en el Palacio de Gelmírez, para dar a conocer mejor la existencia de este hito para la comprensión de las peregrinaciones jacobeas en el siglo XII. En ella se buscaba mostrar el contenido del códice y los datos de su formación, además de la historia de sus traducciones y versiones, todo bajo fuertes medidas de control y seguridad. La exposición, durante la última semana de Agosto del exposicion-de-el-codice-calixtino-en-dependencias-el-palacio-de-gelmirez-de-la-catedral-de-santiagodel 2012, resultó tan exitosa y con tal afluencia de público que se prolongó unos meses en el tiempo para satisfacer la curiosidad despertada, si bien lo que se mostró en esta prórroga fue un facsímil de la obra debido al elevado coste del dispositivo de seguridad que exigía la exposición de la pieza original.

 

miniaturas-calixtino_0003          El Códice Calixtino o Codex Calixtinus es un manuscrito iluminado por letras capitales ilustradas, bordes y múltiples miniaturas, de mediados del siglo XII, que contiene el más antiguo texto del Liber Sancti Iacobi (c. 1140); a veces se usan como conceptos sinónimos, aunque en realidad no son idénticos. El Liber Sancti Iacobi es la versión más antigua de la que se copiaron varios manuscritos con unidad de encuadernación propia y contenido heterogéneo y variable. La versión más antigua es el Liber Sancti Iacobi, que es la que se conoce como Codex Calixtinus (c. 1140) y es el custodiado en la catedral de Santiago de Compostela.

codex-calixtinus-folio-4r-apostol-santiago          Este códice encarna la devoción al apóstol y a la peregrinación a su sepulcro desde el siglo XII, y es el resultado de reunir cinco libros diferentes entrelazados mediante un prólogo y un apéndice. Tras el primero, compuesto en forma de bula pontificia otorgada por el Papa Calixto II, siguen cinco partes: “Litúrgico”, el más amplio; “Narraciones milagrosas”, que incluye 22 relatos de milagros del apóstol Santiago; “Traslación del cuerpo del apóstol Santiago desde Jerusalén hasta Compostela”; “Turpín” o leyenda de Carlomagno, que recoge el descubrimiento de la tumba del apóstol; y “Guía de la Peregrinación”, el más actual y traducido, una auténtica brújula para su uso por parte de los peregrinos. El apéndice ilustra el conjunto polifónico más rico y antiguo de Europa.

calixto_ii          El papa cluniacense Calixto II (1119-1124) fue el mayor benefactor pontificio del santuario de Santiago, por lo que la Iglesia compostelana se atrevió a atribuir la obra a la mano de este pontífice en su libro primero y más extenso de los cinco, así como de buena parte del segundo sobre los milagros del apóstol y traslación del cuerpo de Santiago a Galicia. En realidad no se conoce con certeza el autor o autores pero resulta evidente la influencia francesa, la nacionalidad de Aymeric Picaud, a quien se atribuye la redacción del libro V, donde se describe por vez primera el Camino de Santiago.

presentacioncodexcalixtinus2          Se ha propuesto el título de Iacobus (o Jacobus) para referirse a los libros I y II, que expertos como Manuel C. Díaz y Díaz -uno de los grandes estudiosos de esta obra- opinan que componen el núcleo inicial de la compilación, y considerado como el título deseado por su autor o autores, ya que el Códice de la basílica compostelana se abre con las siguientes palabras: “Ex re signatur, Iacobus liber iste uocatur”. [Justamente signado, este libro Santiago se llama]. Ese es el nombre que se da a una de las ediciones de los facsímiles más contemporáneos.

diego-gelmirez-ante-fruela-alfonso-y-pedro-muniz-manuscrito-tumbo-de-toxosoutos-siglo-xiii          El Codex Calixtinus, tal y como lo conocemos, pudo tardar más de cuarenta años en elaborarse. Sería entre la segunda mitad de la década de 1120 e inicios de la de 1170, aunque estaría muy avanzado hacia 1150. Se elaboraron los textos buscando garantizar un discurso estructurado a favor del prestigio que la tradición jacobea precisaba para consolidarse. La redacción comenzó, muy significativamente, en tiempos del arzobispo Diego Gelmírez, el gran impulsor interno y externo del santuario compostelano durante la Edad Media.

estudio-codicologico          Díaz y Díaz, que hizo un intenso estudio codicológico de su contenido, sostiene que el Códice más antiguo y completo -el de la catedral de Santiago- sería el resultado de trabajos y manuscritos anteriores que confluirían finalmente, en los textos que llegaron hasta nosotros. La versión final del Códice se realizaría entre 1160 y 1170. A principios de la década de 1170 se le añadieron una serie de himnos y poemas con nota musical y algún breve texto de contenido diverso. Para este autor participarían en su elaboración, copistas, poetas, músicos, narradores, fabuladores y teólogos de nota y escritores de raras habilidades, representando lo más selecto del mundo cultivado de la península, así como del norte y centro de Francia.

aymeric-picaud-peregrino-snipview-com          Aunque hoy no discute que su autor o autores son desconocidos, el libro V o guía del Camino Francés, es el único al que la mayoría de los estudiosos atribuyen a un responsable concreto: el religioso francés Aymeric Picaud, al que algún especialista llega a situar como coordinador de la compilación o incluso como autor de casi su totalidad.

calixtoiihdr-copia          Sus miniaturas no alcanzan el número ni la calidad de otros códices medievales, pero aportan información, colorido y fluidez a las páginas. Son también de gran valor artístico la mayoría de las capitulares, como la inicial del Códice compostelano, que representa al papa Calixto redactando el libro.

          Gelmírez quería asentar definitivamente el prestigio e influencia del sepulcro compostelano en el mundo cristiano, como base para su engrandecimiento, y esta especie de enciclopedia jacobea del momento nació para ser el instrumento promocional. Su contenido se estructura en cinco libros y unos apéndices musicales en un total de 225 páginas en pergamino, de 30 x 21 cm, en grafía francesa.

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          Los libros I y V (sobre todo este último) tienen un carácter informativo y práctico, centrado en aspectos de la liturgia propia de Santiago y en consejos para facilitar a los peregrinos su visita al santuario. Los libros II, III y IV inciden en cambio, en los aspectos que favorecerían mejor el prestigio y difusión del mundo jacobeo: los milagros del Santo, el traslado de sus restos a Galicia y el descubrimiento de su sepulcro.

          El primer libro es el más extenso del Códice. Solo él sobrepasa la extensión conjunta de los otros cuatro. En treinta y un capítulos recoge un amplio conjunto de textos litúrgicos para el culto a Santiago: misas, rezos, sermones, homilías, bendiciones, cantos, danzas, etc. La mayoría son de gran valor argumental y se centran sobre todo en las festividades de Santiago el Mayor del  25 de julio y 30 de diciembre (traslación). Uno de los capítulos de este libro, el XVII, es el famoso sermón Veneranda Dies, esencial para conocer las características del mundo jacobeo en el siglo XII.

milagro-gallinas          El segundo libro es de contenido hagiográfico. Recopila veintidós milagros atribuidos a Santiago, supuestamente acontecidos entre los años 1100 y 1110. Sólo uno se sitúa fuera de este contexto temporal, en el año 1135. Son milagros con una clara vocación universal, ya que suceden en muy diversos lugares del mundo. Destacan sobre todo los relacionados con el Camino de Santiago. Busca que los peregrinos afiancen su fe en el amparo del Apóstol a la vez que pone una moraleja aleccionadora para los diversos protagonistas de la ruta jacobea. Algunos de estos relatos lograron una notable difusión y ayudaron a afianzar la peregrinación. El más célebre de todos: el sucedido en Santo Domingo de la Calzada es conocido popularmente como el milagro del gallo y la gallina, relata el milagro de un peregrino alemán ahorcado injustamente que resucita al volver su padre de realizar la peregrinación a Santiago.

tabla-del-siglo-xv-que-representa-la-translatio-museo-diocesano-de-camerino-italia          El libro III relata los prodigiosos sucesos relacionados con la traslación del cuerpo de Santiago desde Palestina, donde había muerto decapitado por orden del rey Herodes, hasta Galicia, con las peripecias de los discípulos que lo acompañan hasta que logran dar sepultura al Apóstol en un lugar de la futura Compostela. El relato, conciso en detalles, pretendía resolver las dudas sobre los motivos que justificaban la presencia del cuerpo de Santiago en Galicia. Existían breves noticias anteriores sobre su enterramiento en el occidente peninsular e incluso en Galicia.

fotonoticia_20160224144417_1280          El libro IV busca resaltar los argumentos destinados a prestigiar el culto a Santiago dándole una dimensión europea. Se relata para ello la prodigiosa apertura desde Francia del camino hacia el sepulcro de Santiago, atribuyéndose la misión a Carlomagno (742-814), considerado el gran emperador de Occidente. El Códice atribuye este libro IV, conocido como la Historia de Turpín o Historia Turpini, a un obispo con este nombre de la ciudad francesa de Reims. Sin embargo, Turpín, fallecido a finales del siglo VIII, difícilmente podría haber acompañado a Carlomagno en sus imaginarias correrías por el norte de España a principios del siglo IX, momento en el que se situaría esta historia. Por ello se ha denominado este libro  Pseudo-Turpin, en alusión a que su redacción fue posiblemente obra de anónimos autores franceses vinculados a la Iglesia compostelana. También se le ha dado el título de Historia Karoli Magni et Rotholandi, al situar al ya entonces (s. XII) sacralizado y mitificado emperador Carlomagno, acompañado de modo principal en su misión jacobea por el legendario caballero Roldán, como el gran protagonista de la narración. Estos sucesos, inspirados en los cantares de gesta que habían dado lugar al Cantar de Roldán (s. XI), son pura invención, muy del gusto medieval. Carlomagno fallece en el 814 y el descubrimiento del sepulcro jacobeo se produjo entre los años 820 y 830. El objetivo lógico era poner en hacer favor de lo jacobeo la mítica figura de Carlomagno y los héroes con él relacionados en la mentalidad popular. Es el libro que tuvo más favorable acogida en un primer momento,  sin embargo, en 1619 fue retirado del Códice de la catedral compostelana, alegando que no pertenecía al papa Calixto II, sino al obispo Turpín. Pero la retirada se debió más probablemente a la necesidad que tenía la Iglesia compostelana de reforzar el papel de los reyes hispanos en el inicio y desarrollo de la tradición jacobea, en unos tiempos difíciles para el santuario apostólico en los que el apoyo de la Corona se hacía muy necesario.

calixtinus_41          El Libro V es el conocido como Liber peregrinationis o Guía del peregrino medieval. De autor anónimo, se ha atribuido a Aymeric Picaud, clérigo  francés de la región del Poitou, región francesa cuyas virtudes son singularmente realzadas sobre las de los demás pueblos citados. Se considera la primera guía detallada de viajes por Europa. Realizado posiblemente entre los años 1135 y 1140, ofrece el trazado del Camino de Santiago en Francia a través de cuatro largas vías principales y en España desarrolla e identifica el trazado del Camino Francés. Es el primer texto en el que aparecen ambos trazados y lo hacen con una precisión que sorprende para la época. Aporta diversos consejos para la realización de spanish-courses-spain-salamanca-codice-calixtino-camino-santiagola peregrinación: la valoración de los pueblos y gentes de la Ruta, las localidades, las etapas hasta Compostela, las reliquias a visitar a lo largo del viaje, la detallada descripción de la catedral de Santiago, etc., como resultado de la experiencia del autor.

codex-calixtinus_02_mg_7243          Una de las grandes aportaciones a la cultura occidental del Códice Calixtino está en su música polifónica, que sobresale en el apéndice final, con veintiuna composiciones que constituyen el primer ejemplo de polifonía de verdadera calidad artística de todo Occidente. Destaca, sobre todo, el popular Dum pater familias, el canto de peregrinación más antiguo conocido en el presente y todo indica que con notable repercusión en la Edad Media.

codice-calixtino-moralejo          A las numerosas traducciones en distintos idiomas desde el siglo XIX de fragmentos y libros específicos, siguió, por fin, la primera versión completa en un idioma moderno. Fue la española, publicada en 1951 con un gran número de notas a pie de página y realizada, a partir de la transcripción de Whatehil, por los profesores Abelardo Moralejo, Casimiro Torres y Julio Feo, la más recomendable para consultas del mundo hispano y que aprecio incluso más que una edición facsimil, que luce mucho más de lo que aporta.

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