If we consider the Jacobean worship credible and transcendent: How could he forget?. It should not be difficult to resolve the question if we consider that today we forget the location of the grave of relatives not very distant whose memory happens to be ignored for our children or for ourselves. In Galicia it is not difficult for an endless number of plant species to take possession of the stone, to conceal it, and even to swallow it under its green silence. Thus have been forgotten tombs, ruins, walls and archaeological remains of all types low the thick vegetation. In other parts of the world, temples, villages and entire civilizations have been hidden under the thick of the jungle. Nothing difficult would be the immersion in the thicket of the Galician forest of a tomb and still of an old necropolis, that could literally be buried by a vegetation entangled in the trunks and the stones, opposing its pricks and its tangle to any curiosity, and that served As well as a lair to wolves, foxes and vermin, which would end up making it invisible and inaccessible to men. Tradition was able to last, leaving only its message of mystery transmitted from one generation to another, confused perhaps even with old traditions of those that existed by these contours.
But first of all I should point out that there was never a need to forget it, but that the situation was that it never came to be known in a formal way and that it was limited to a question of local scope, contained by historical circumstances that prevented its expansion and They limited it to a circumscribed practice.
Yet it is important to expose something that made it difficult to identify the facts and especially the person, whose identity we have already seen that historically, as in many other cases, was deformed by a multitude of legendary and mythical components that complicate the recognition of the protagonist.
|Territories of preaching||Burial place|
|Peter||Jerusalem and Rome||Rome|
|Paul||Many, even Iliria||Rome|
|SANTIAGO||Palestine, Judea, Samaria, Spain||Palestine, Judea / Marmárica, Galicia|
The identification of facts and personages was deformed by legendary components that make difficult its recognition, being the CONFUSION OF THE SANTIAGOS. On the territories of preaching and burial, the codices prior to the discovery of the Jacobean tomb, show a significant contrast between the unity of destiny of different apostles and the plural destiny of the apostle Santiago. Why this difference? The cause is in the confusion between personages with the same name: Santiago the Greater, Santiago the Minor and Santiago Alfeo. In the Western tradition, Santiago el Menor and Santiago Alfeo identify themselves as one and the same person, and that their father, Cleophas, is the same as Alfeo; While the Eastern Tradition identifies them as different characters, which gives us an idea of the complexity of historical criteria to identify or differentiate some characters.
Some authors suggest a fourth Santiago not well identified in the author of the Evangelical Epistle, proper of an editor with a refined Greek domain, a literary style and a Semitic mentality that does not fit well with the previous ones and that opens the option of other possible personages with this name.
The relation of personages with the name of Jacobo or Santiago is extended with Jacobo bishop of Nisibe called Great († 338), Afrates (270-345) that adopted the name when entering a monastery of Antioch and was confused with the previous one , Jacobo of Sarug (451-521), Jacobo of Palestine called the Hermit (6th century), and particularly Santiago Baradeo († 578), Syrian monk and last bishop Of Edessa in 541, that reached legendary fame like leader of the monofisismo, with adepts called jacobitas, that preached in lands of Marmárica, where it died and was buried. That is to say, that the tomb of Santiago in Marmárica that cites some codices, should not be that of Santiago the Major, but that of this Santiago Baradeo. Apart from the interpretations that have been given to the word “Marmárica” and its possible explanation, what seems to occur is that the figure of a single Macro-Santiago is amalgamated, in which the characters are confused, the place of preaching and the place of burial .
It is understood that “in acha marmárica” is an equivocal expression without a clear meaning of location. Manuel C. Diaz y Díaz confuses him and defines it as “lectio difficilior” (“reading more difficult”) or expression that designates the principle of codicology according to which, from two or more readings of a passage, chooses the most difficult one, perhaps because it is the most genuine, if one takes into account that the scribe or copyist should have wanted to correct what he found incomprehensible. The consequence is an indecipherable toponym that has been modified in the manuscript translation, appearing of different forms in different sources, generating diverse interpretations. Other authors speak of “misrepresentation” or deformation of a word by the interpretation that the copyist gives him based on his own knowledge, transcribing erroneously a primitive toponym. If the term refers to the North African Marmárica (current Libya), it can not refer to Santiago to the Greater that no tradition locates there, and to be the mentioned Baradeo; Or to Santiago Alfeo, whom some tradition places preaching in Africa, perhaps also by confusion.
Thus the existence of the Jacobean cult is plausible before its dissemination in the ninth century, and there are reasons for confusion and oblivion, such as apostolic anonymity, late interest in the life of the apostles, the clandestine nature of the jacobean process, confusion about the figure of Santiago, mistakes about the place name, and reasons such as Roman persecution, invasion by the Suevi and Islam, and depopulation by war, disease or famine. If these facts can separately explain the loss of a distant and local passage of history, much more when all of them are associated.
The conclusion that we can deduce is that it is feasible the existence of a local cult, first concealed or forgotten and then reappeared and spread from a favorable moment.